By the early 1970s, studying the solar-terrestrial relationship and the correlations between isolated physical phenomena in the near-earth space became an important task. Such an integrated mission required a new type of satellite. After a careful analysis, Yuzhnoye chose two versions of an automatic universal orbital station: with downward pointing (AUOS-Z) and with solar pointing (AUOS-OM). Equipped with respective onboard instrumentation, these orbital stations became baseline platforms for mission-specific scientific spacecraft.

AUOS-Z based spacecraft

The AUOS-Z automatic universal orbital station was designed for comprehensive space research and physical research of solar activity, geophysical phenomena, and the relationship between these phenomena and solar activity. The research was conducted for an international cooperation program. The AUOS-Z was also used in experiments for the benefit of national economy. To switch to another application, the station did not require many design modifications or changes to the equipment configuration.

AUOS-Z-T-IK

Mass, kg

950
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Received data allowed making a conclusion that the experimentation phase was completed and a unified international telemetry system can be used to run scientific experiments under the Interkosmos program.
Orbited on 19 June 1976

AUOS-Z-R-O

Mass, kg

1056
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Onboard instrumentation supported studies of particles, different levels of energies, and cold ionospheric plasma in the subauroral region, auroral oval, and the polar cap in times of geomagnetic calm, magnetic storms, and solar flares.
Orbited on 30 March 1977

AUOS-Z-R-E-IK

Mass, kg

1020
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Experimental data provided new information on Sun and galactic cosmic rays, on sources of cosmic rays in the Galaxy and beyond, on mechanisms of particle acceleration to high energies, on main characteristics of galactic and meta-galactic environment where cosmic rays propagate.
Orbited on 24 September 1977

AUOS-Z-M-IK

Mass, kg

990
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results This spacecraft and the first Czech spacecraft Magion, which was separated from AUOS in flight, helped to obtain data that gave a more detailed explanation to the interaction of ionosphere and magnetosphere; radio propagation in magnetosphere was studied, mass spectrometry of the upper atmosphere was performed.
Orbited on 24 October 1978

AUOS-Z-I-IK

Mass, kg

1042
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Experiments conducted using this spacecraft allowed more detailed studies of
the nature of magnetosphere - ionosphere electromagnetic coupling and the Sun - Earth energy transfer.
Orbited on 27 February 1979

AUOS-Z-R-P-IK

Mass, kg

995
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results A data acquisition and transmission system was flight-tested. All the system operation modes were checked during flight tests: buoy search, handshaking, buoy data acquisition onboard the spacecraft, and data transmission to processing centers.
Orbited on 1 December 1979

AUOS-Z-M-A-IK

Mass, kg

1030
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11K68
Main experimental results New types of pure low-frequency radiation were discovered; defects of nonlinear detection of intense radio waves in short-wave range were detected; and plasma phenomena in magnetosphere, caused by a medium-power ground explosion, were registered for the first time.
Orbited on 21 September 1981

AUOS-Z-I-E

Mass, kg

1024
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11K68
Main experimental results A vast store of scientific data was obtained from remote sensing of ionosphere and measuring of local characteristics of ionospheric plasma and its wave properties.
A number of new low solar activity phenomena, which had not been mentioned in the literature, were discovered.
Orbited on 18 December 1986

AUOS-Z-AV-IK

Mass, kg

1400
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11K68
Main experimental results Operation in solar maximum helped to obtain unique scientific data on magnetospheric/ionospheric plasma. 
Orbited on 28 September 1989

AUOS-Z-AP-IK

Mass, kg

1300
Active life, months 6
Launch vehicle 11K68
Main experimental results

First-time events:

Study into feasibility of using chopped beams of charged electronic and plasma particles as radiating structure-free antennas

Low-frequency radiation on the fundamental modulation frequency of an electron beam was recorded by receivers/spectrum analyzers installed onboard a subsatellite located at several dozens of kilometers from the main spacecraft, which ejected the electron beam

A capability to eject an electron beam was demonstrated, under insufficiency of spacecraft charge compensation with background plasma

A capability of ballistic wave transformation through opacity barriers was demonstrated during  experimentation in space

A series of experiments was conducted with injection of inert gas to study anomalous critical ionization.

Orbited on 18 December 1991

AUOS-SM-KI version based spacecraft

The baseline spacecraft, AUOS-SM, was designed for comprehensive research of the Sun for the benefit of science and national economy.

Title AUOS-SM-KI AUOS-SM-KF AUOS-SM-F

Mass, kg

2295 2340 2360
Active life, years 1
Launch vehicle 11К68
Main experimental results More than 2000 images of the Sun in mono temperature spectral ranges were made during the observation period; X-ray image directories of the whole solar disk and individual active formations were created.

About 100 Mb of raw scientific data, images of the Sun in different regions of X-ray spectrum, were donwlinked to Earth per day. The imagery was used to recover 3D images and dynamics of the solar corona. Dynamic plasma structures were discovered, with temperatures almost ten times higher than that of the solar corona. 

Mission: Solar activity integrated scientific experiment.
Orbited on 2 March 1994 31 July 2001 In the design development phase, the project was transferred to FGUP Scientific-Research Institute of Electromechanics, Russian Federation. 
UP