First generation

The first-generation spacecraft include the DS-P1-Yu, DS-P1-I, and Tjulpan (Tulip) derived from the DS-P1 spacecraft and used for military applications such as development tests, adjustment, calibration, and certification of special-purpose land- and space-based complexes of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union.

DS-P1-Yu

Mass, kg

193;240
Active life 60 days
Launch vehicle 63S1, 11K63
Main experimental results Adjustment, neat characterization, and checkout of early-warning station radar capabilities; alignment of close-control radar channels.
Orbited on 30 July 1964

DS-P1-I

Mass, kg

195
Active life 60 days
Launch vehicle 11K63
Main experimental results Adjustment, neat characterization, and periodic functional tests of ground stations that determined coordinates and transmitted commands from special-purpose systems of the Ministry of Defense.
Orbited on 25 January 1965

Tjulpan

Mass, kg

643
Active life 60 days
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results The Tjulpan spacecraft was a target satellite developed for full-scale tests of killer satellites of the Soviet antisatellite defense.
Orbited on 9 February 1971

Second generation

In the early 1970s, in accordance with the governmental decree, the second-generation adjustment and calibration spacecraft were developed: the Tajfun (Typhoon) rocket space complex to maintain combat readiness and support development tests of new special-purpose ground complexes of the Ministry of Defense. Spacecraft unification encompassed the onboard support system and the spacecraft components, as well as individual components of onboard special-purpose systems.

Title Tajfun-1А Tajfun-1V

Mass, kg

750 585
Active life 6 months
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Functional check of antiaircraft sensors, using a single target; adjustment and checkout of energy and accuracy performance of early warning sensors; adjustment, alignment, and verification of ballistic missile defense control channels; verification of over-the-horizon radar ranging methods.
Orbited on 18 June 1974

Duga-K

Mass, kg

810
Active life 6 months
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Improvement of over-the-horizon radar performance monitoring methods.
Orbited on 14 February 1989

Tajfun-1B

Mass, kg

750
Active life  
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Spacecraft functioning as a reradiator allowed defining and verifying the energy potential of a radar channel without installing respective equipment onboard the spacecraft.
Orbited on

14 May 1980

Title

Tajfun-2А

Tajfun-2B

Tajfun-2V

Mass, kg

1045 1040 1160
Active life 1 year
Launch vehicle 11К65М
Main experimental results Generation of a multiple-unit target model; definition of resolution of MoD’s special-purpose complexes; ground station performance monitoring and characterization;  determination of position and command transmission tests; definition of quantum radar energy characteristics, signal analysis, and performance monitoring.
Orbited on 28 April 1976

Third generation

Koltso

Mass, kg

1630
Active life 1 year
Launch vehicle 11К68
Main experimental results The spacecraft supported development tests and maintenance of MoD’s new-generation special-purpose ground equipment in combat readiness.
Orbited on 27 December 1989
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