The Zenit-3SL Integrated Launch Vehicle (ILV) is a three-staged rocket on non-toxic propellants (liquid oxygen
and kerosene RG-1) intended for injection of spacecrafts (SC) into various near-Earth orbits and escape
trajectories. It is created on the basis of two-staged rocket Zenit-2 LV of the
Yuzhnoye SDO origin, upper stage (US) DM-SL (elaborated by Energia
RSC) and payload unit (elaborated by Boeing Company).
The Zenit-3SL ILV operates in composition of the Sea Launch rocket-space complex used by the
International Company Sea Launch for providing
commercial launch services. The first launch was performed on March 27, 1999. In total 29 succesful
launches were carried, by April 20, 2009. From 1985 to 2009 the basic Zenit-2 LV was launched 37 times,
from them 30 - successfully. Besides, the improved units of its first stage were used in capacity of the
strap-on boosters for Energia LV and performed successfully within two launches (in total 8 rocket units).
Zenit-M rocket complex features the following advantages:
- High reliability and acceptable self-cost adopted at
projecting and confirmed by proven manufacturing processes.
- Horizontal technology of integration and transportation allows significant
simplification of technological equipment and prelaunch preparation.
- Full automatization of prelaunch processing provides possibility to
launch the ILV from the sea platform and ensures the highest safety of personnel.
- Possibility to perform launches along any azimuth, almost not restricted by the flight route.
- Ecologically clean propellants.
Payload capability of Zenit-3SL ILV during SC injection to GTO
The power and operational characteristics of Zenit-3SL ILV are described in detail on
Basic characteristics of Zenit-3SL
|Maximum lift-off mass, t||473|
|Payload mass injected into the GSO transfer orbit, t:||6,0|
|Propellant mass, t||425|
|Engines thrust during LV start, tf||740|
|Maximum acceleration during injection, g||4,0|
|Full length, m||59,6|
|Diameter of LV stages (1st and 2nd), m||3,9|
|Upper stage diameter, m||3,7|
|Nose fairing diameter, m||4,15|
|Number of stages||3|
|Service beginning||March 1999||
Zenit-3SL ILV is designed in accordance with monoblock tandem scheme and contains:
- units of the first and second stages composing Zenit-2S LV of Yuzhnoye elaboration;
- upper stage DM-SLB elaborated by Energia RSC;
- payload unit elaborated by Boeing company.
The general appearance of Zenit-3SL ILV is shown in Figure.
Scheme of Zenit-3SLB
space head module "Zenit-3SL"
Payload envelope dimension
zones at the nose fairing used for Zenit-3SL ILV
Zenit-3SL LV presents an optimal solution in terms of power characteristics, reliability, accuracy and cost of SC injection, which has been reached owing to utilization of developed systems and optimal planning of production process, transportation technology, prelaunch preparation and launch.
Launch statistics Zenit-3SL